Archive for the ‘Anti-Psychotics’ Category

posted by admin on Jun 7

ADHD can play a very detrimental role in a child’s ability to make and keep friends. And as ADHD children grow older, the situation becomes even more complicated.All very young children are impulsive and active, so in nursery school there is less reflection regarding others who behave differently. But in elementary school, children begin to observe and compare each other. The normal child is better able to delay gratification, to delay impulse, to sit and listen, and to model his behavior according to group norms. But in a child with ADHD, those abilities are impaired on many different levels. They may be more hyperactive than the other children and unable to delay their response to stimuli. This may mean talking too much, not completing classroom assignments, and running around rather than sitting still.In addition, ADHD children of school age are not as well equipped to make interpersonal judgments. They don’t understand what’s transpiring emotionally in others or how to read the expressions in other people’s faces. Consequently, they have to work much harder than normal youngsters to evaluate what’s going on socially and to find their own place in it. This can be a serious struggle because they already have so many other problems. They can’t concentrate, they’re easily distracted, and nothing they do seems right. It’s a tremendous uphill battle for many of these children.By the first grade, children start to observe and make comments about each other. They notice right away that an ADHD child’s behavior is different, and they react to him. They may not want to play with him, for example, or they may call him names, which only compounds the situation by lowering his self-esteem even further.We know that ADHD children have a great amount of trouble tolerating uncomfortable internal emotions because, as infants, they didn’t have the learning experiences that teach them how to cope. They don’t know how to find significant people within the environment to help them cope either. Consequently, the only thing they can do is react in the same way as the screaming infant does. They may throw screaming tantrums, be overtly aggressive, pick fights, and even lose control of their urine or bowels.This was a problem of Peter’s. His severe encopresis recurred at times of stress even as he grew older and advanced through grade school, causing him enormous humiliation among his peers. This was an older child’s version of the uncontrolled bodily outbursts he had as an infant.Once school-age children develop the most telling symptoms of ADHD, they may become social pariahs. Classmates refuse to play with them and often tease them unmercifully because of their strange behavior. Not surprisingly, this can severely hamper any possibility of academic success, which is already difficult for the ADHD child.*23\173\2*

posted by admin on Jan 15

The history of ADHD’s “evolution” is both fascinating and lengthy. It’s not a new ailment, but it’s taken doctors and researchers quite a long time to understand what it is and how to effectively treat it.
The first description of ADHD in the medical literature was made in 1902 by an English doctor named George Still, who described a group of young patients stricken with extreme hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. Not surprisingly, the group consisted of three boys for every girl, and in each case the problems manifested themselves before age eight. From his report, it’s apparent that Still was dealing with almost textbook examples of ADHD. Based on the fact that most of the children in his study came from good, loving homes, Still theorized that their condition was biological rather than environmental and might even have a genetic component.
It’s interesting to note that during that period, disruptive children were generally viewed as simply poorly disciplined, and much of the responsibility for their behavior was placed on their parents’ shoulders. Parenting books and even many medical texts advocated spanking and other forms of corporal punishment as the answer to hyperactivity and inattention. Now, of course, we know that corporal punishment does nothing to eliminate the symptoms of ADHD, and can, in fact, make them worse.
A 1917 encephalitis outbreak in the United States stimulated still more interest in attention deficit syndromes because many children stricken with the disease developed problems strikingly similar to ADHD, including hyperactivity and attention deficit. Doctors reasoned that the virus responsible for encephalitis damaged the same parts of the brain suspected to be immature in ADHD children. By the 1940s, the term minimal brain damage was used to describe this disorder. However, once it was determined that these children often had no evidence of brain damage, the term was changed to minimal brain dysfunction.
Hyperactivity became the focus of study in the 1950s, when doctors started referring to the condition as “hyperkinetic impulse disorder.” It was during this period that Ritalin and other stimulants became the treatment of choice for children with ADHD, though the number of prescriptions then was dramatically lower than what we’re seeing today.
During the latter part of the 1960s, doctors and researchers began to realize with greater certainty that the symptoms that make up ADHD are biological and possibly genetic in origin— not the result of poor parenting, environment, or children just being “bad.” The use of stimulants, particularly Ritalin, became increasingly common as parents looked desperately for an effective treatment.
The 1970s saw greater research into both the causes and effects of ADHD, with strong emphasis on impulsivity and distractibility. Scientists became increasingly convinced of a biological and probably genetic cause, although they couldn’t prove it. As studies attempted to understand the underlying deficient cognitive operations that result in the syndrome, the name given to the disorder changed. Thus the term attention deficit disorder reflected the conviction, largely following the work of Virginia Douglas in the 1970s and 1980s, that a deficit in attention was the primary underlying disorder. In DSM TV, hyperactivity was added to the nomenclature, so that now the syndrome is referred to as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
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