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Posted by admin on Jul 20

You have breast cancer.’ This is the news that 115 women receive every single working day in the UK. It is not surprising that fear is triggered by these words, and this fear is made worse by the fact that it is, largely, fear of the unknown. So what can you expect to experience if diagnosed with breast cancer? Every person is an individual, and will have an individual experience, but here we will look at the most common issues surrounding this diagnosis, and unravel some of the information about the development of breast cancer.     What is cancer-Cancer is not just one disease – there are around 180 different types. Even breast cancer is not a single disease. However, most types of breast cancer can be distinguished from other cancers because they are affected by hormones, and this makes the conventional treatment of breast cancer different in some respects, and the nutritional management of breast cancer different in many respects.     Cancer arises when cells begin to multiply out of control, usually developing into a mass which, if left to progress, spreads to other areas of the body. If left unchecked, the expanding cancerous tissue depletes the body of nourishment and may press on body tissues, causing discomfort. Ultimately the cancerous growths may displace healthy tissue to the point where normal body functions can no longer take place.     The word tumour is a worrying one, but a tumour is not always malignant (cancerous). A tumour can simply be an overgrowth of cells that stays localized in one particular area, as in the case of a fibroadenoma. This is called ‘benign’, and as long as it is not pressing on nerves, ligaments or organs, is nothing to worry about.     There are four stages in the development of cancer and these happen over a long period of time. The average development time for breast cancer is ten years. In some people it may be three years and for others twenty; however, if you take the average, you have a long time to interfere with the process. And interfere you can. Each stage along the way offers opportunities to interrupt the development of cancer.*36\240\2*

Posted by admin on Jul 13

If you follow this program with commitment and determination and put all the elements into practice, you will achieve three major changes in your life:• You will stop binge eating• You will lose weight• You will regain control of your lifeStudies have shown that the majority of people who follow the guidelines that I am about to share with you show great improvement in their control over food. Most stop binge eating altogether. Some find that, from time to time, under conditions of great stress, they temporarily fall back into their old binge habits. These lapses are both short-term and few and far between.As you gain control over your binge eating you will begin to lose weight. It is important to remain patient and stay focused on your main problem, binge eating. Successful weight control is a by-product of your success with binge behavior. Do not get caught up with quick weight loss. You will lose weight, but it will be steady and gradual. Remember: fad, rigid, ultra-low-calorie diets are part of your problem. These diets offer false hope, eventual disappointment, and discouragement. They are your enemy.When you stop binge eating and begin to lose weight you will also notice a drastic change in your life. My program not only shows you how to change your behavior but also how to change your attitude about yourself and your life. You will experience improvements in mood and self-image. You will begin to believe in yourself once again. You’ll regain control of your mind and body. You will begin to care about yourself and your life in a much more significant way. You will begin to take care of yourself and make yourself a higher priority. Your life will take on new meaning, purpose, and passion.Now that you are ready, let’s begin your journey to freedom and self-control.*60\358\8*

Posted by admin on Jul 5

The brain is enclosed in a container of bone (the skull) which in turn is covered by a fibrous structure and skin (the scalp). The scalp is attached by muscles to the forehead and the bone of the neck so that tensing these muscles causes stretching of the scalp. Beneath the skin there are numerous blood vessels-arteries-taking blood from the heart and veins returning blood to it. The scalp arteries arise from the large carotid artery which divides in the neck into two branches. One of these, the external carotid artery, sends blood to the outside of the skull and also to the coverings of the brain (meninges) within the skull, whilst the other branch, the internal carotid artery, enters the skull to join with vessels originating from the vertebral artery. The blood supply to the brain is from branches of the left and right internal carotid arteries which, with the vertebral arteries, form a communication round the base of the brain (the circle of Willis). From this circle, branches go to the front, centre, and back of the brain sending out a network of ever finer vessels which dive deep into the substance of the brain.Veins drain the blood from the brain and channel it into a series of large veins (venous sinuses) closely attached to the brain coverings. From these, the blood travels either by way of the jugular veins, or by communications through the skull, to join with blood draining from the scalp to return eventually to the heart.



Posted by admin on Jun 28

EpidemiologyImpetigo is a common superficial skin infection that is usually caused by S. aureus, but it can also be caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci or a combination of the two. Bullous impetigo is usually caused by a toxigenic staphylococcus strain that causes epidermal cleavage. Impetigo is more commonly seen in children, especially those between 2 and 5 years of age. The rash usually occurs on intact skin, but streptococci require traumatized skin to cause infection. Two to 5% of impetigo cases are complicated by post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, but clusters with rates as high as 15% have been reported.
Signs and SymptomsImpetigo typically occurs around the nose and mouth or on the limbs. It begins as a vesicle (<5 mm) or cloudy pustule that spontaneously ruptures to expose a well-demarcated, red, weeping, shallow erosion. In bullous impetigo, vesicles progress to form bullae (>5 mm) before eroding. A characteristic honey-colored crust accumulates on the lesions. The infections spread both radially and by autoinoculation to form satellite lesions. Lesions are typically asymptomatic, but some patients may report mild pruritis. Regional adenopathy is common, but systemic symptoms are unusual. Without treatment, lesions can persist for months.
DiagnosisThe diagnosis is based on clinical assessment. In recurrent or resistant cases, Gram stain and culture of the lesions should be performed. The differential diagnosis of impetigo includes varicella (chickenpox), herpes simplex virus, candidiasis, atopic or contact dermatitis, scabies, and guttate psoriasis. Impetigo can also arise secondarily from these lesions.
TreatmentTreatment should provide coverage for both S. aureus and streptococci. Topical treatment with mupirocin 2% ointment/cream (Bactroban) works well for isolated lesions. It should be applied three times daily for 7 to 14 days or until the infection is clear. Oral antibiotics are favored by many experts, especially when impetigo is extensive. Options for systemic treatment include cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, clindamycin, amoxicillin-clavulonate, azithromycin, clarithromycin, first- and second-generation cephalosporins, and second-generation fluoroquinolones. Patients should be warned to use contact precautions until lesions begin to heal.
Recurrent ImpetigoRecurrent impetigo has been linked to carriage of S. aureus, especially in the nares. Mupirocin ointment applied to the nares twice daily for 5 days can reduce nasal carriage and infection. The 5-day treatment can be repeated monthly in difficult cases.
Ecthyma (Ulcerative Impetigo)Ecthyma can be considered an ulcerative variation of impetigo. It is caused by streptococci and begins as vesicles or bullae, typically on the legs. These lesions progress to a deeper erosion and have a thick crust that is sometimes gray. Ecthyma arises in minor wounds that are neglected. It should be treated with systemic antibiotics to minimize scarring.*110/348/5*

Posted by admin on Jun 18

Feeling your baby’s first movements must be one of life’s most wonderful experiences, knowing that first little flutter is the sign that your baby is growing inside you. As the weeks go by the movements will get stronger and your partner will be able to experience this wonderful feeling with you. This should also make you feel more at ease, knowing that your baby is doing well and is active. By the seventh month you might see a foot shape or a little hand or bottom imprinted in your stomach.At the end of the pregnancy before the baby’s head engages, the baby will be very active, moving around from side to side. Once it has engaged, however, you will notice that the movements are much less. This is because the head is now engaged in the pelvis and is unable to move around much.Any appreciable change in fetal activity, whether increased or decreased, may be a cause for concern and the woman should notify her medical practitioner immediately. Generally women should note 10 movements in a 12 hour period. If you don’t notice any movements then contact your practitioner or the midwife.*4/199/5*

Posted by admin on Jun 7

ADHD can play a very detrimental role in a child’s ability to make and keep friends. And as ADHD children grow older, the situation becomes even more complicated.All very young children are impulsive and active, so in nursery school there is less reflection regarding others who behave differently. But in elementary school, children begin to observe and compare each other. The normal child is better able to delay gratification, to delay impulse, to sit and listen, and to model his behavior according to group norms. But in a child with ADHD, those abilities are impaired on many different levels. They may be more hyperactive than the other children and unable to delay their response to stimuli. This may mean talking too much, not completing classroom assignments, and running around rather than sitting still.In addition, ADHD children of school age are not as well equipped to make interpersonal judgments. They don’t understand what’s transpiring emotionally in others or how to read the expressions in other people’s faces. Consequently, they have to work much harder than normal youngsters to evaluate what’s going on socially and to find their own place in it. This can be a serious struggle because they already have so many other problems. They can’t concentrate, they’re easily distracted, and nothing they do seems right. It’s a tremendous uphill battle for many of these children.By the first grade, children start to observe and make comments about each other. They notice right away that an ADHD child’s behavior is different, and they react to him. They may not want to play with him, for example, or they may call him names, which only compounds the situation by lowering his self-esteem even further.We know that ADHD children have a great amount of trouble tolerating uncomfortable internal emotions because, as infants, they didn’t have the learning experiences that teach them how to cope. They don’t know how to find significant people within the environment to help them cope either. Consequently, the only thing they can do is react in the same way as the screaming infant does. They may throw screaming tantrums, be overtly aggressive, pick fights, and even lose control of their urine or bowels.This was a problem of Peter’s. His severe encopresis recurred at times of stress even as he grew older and advanced through grade school, causing him enormous humiliation among his peers. This was an older child’s version of the uncontrolled bodily outbursts he had as an infant.Once school-age children develop the most telling symptoms of ADHD, they may become social pariahs. Classmates refuse to play with them and often tease them unmercifully because of their strange behavior. Not surprisingly, this can severely hamper any possibility of academic success, which is already difficult for the ADHD child.*23\173\2*



Posted by admin on May 28

Hepatitis С virus is transmitted primarily through large or repeated percutaneous exposures to blood. During a medical evaluation, it is important to obtain a history of high-risk practices associated with transmission of the virus. Risk factors for HCV infection include the following:Injection and other illegal drug use – Currently, most new HCV infections are associated with injection drug use. Approximately 50% to 60% of these individuals are infected within 3 months of initiation of injection behavior. Even individuals who infrequently used injection drugs in the remote past may be at risk for infection with HCV. Intranasal cocaine use has also been associated with the acquisition of HCV.Transfusion and organ transplantation – Improved screening of blood and organ donors has made transmission of HCV by transfusion or transplantation rare. The introduction of HCV antibody detection testing in 1992 significantly reduced the risk of disease by these routes. With the implementation of this testing in blood banks, the risk for HCV infection from blood transfusion is now less than 1 in 103,000 transfused units. The residual risk results from blood donations that occur in the period between infection and the development of detectable antibodies.Hemodialysis -The prevalence of HCV antibody among hemodialysis patients is approximately 10%, and the infection is presumed to have been transmitted by inadequate infection control practices.Health care workers – The prevalence of HCV infection among health care workers is similar to that in the general population (approximately 2%). Needle-stick injury is the primary risk factor for HCV transmission, and the incidence of seroconversion after such an injury is 3% to 4%. Transmission of HCV from blood splash to the conjunctiva has also been reported.Sexual activity – Transmission of HCV does occur through sexual activity, but at low frequency. The estimated seroprevalence of HCV is 2% to 3% among partners of HCV-infected individuals who are in long-term monogamous relationships. Thus, monogamous couples do not need to use barrier protection but should be advised that condoms may reduce the risk of HCV transmission. HCV-infected individuals who have multiple sexual partners or who are in short-term relationships should be advised to use condoms to prevent the transmission of HCV (as well as other sexually transmitted disease).Household contact – HCV transmission by normal household contact is extremely uncommon. There is no evidence that casual contact, such as kissing, hugging, or sharing eating utensils, is associated with HCV transmission. However, sharing household items that may be contaminated with blood, such as razors, toothbrushes, or nail care tools, should be avoided.Tattooing/body piercing – These activities have been associated with HCV transmission, and contaminated equipment or supplies have been implicated.Vertical transmission – Among infants born to HCV-positive, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative women, the incidence of HCV infection is 5% to 6%, but the incidence is higher among children born to HCV and HIV co-infected mothers (14-20%). Infants born to HCV-positive women should have their blood tested for either HCV RNA at approximately 6 months of age or HCV antibody at 15 months of age (after maternal antibodies have waned). Breastfeeding does not appear to transmit HCV. Current therapeutic modalities for HCV are contraindicated during pregnancy, and no studies have evaluated the use of elective cesarean section for the prevention of mother-to-infant HCV infection.*78/348/5*

Posted by admin on May 17

Methotrexate (Rheumatrex) has become increasingly popular for rheumatoid arthritis. It is an immune suppressant first developed for cancer chemotherapy. It can also be used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus. Methotrexate has recently begun to be classed as a potential disease-modifying drug for rheumatoid arthritis. Methotrexate often leads to improvement in symptoms within a month.However, it can cause a host of side effects, including loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, intestinal ulceration and, in some cases, bone marrow suppression and severe liver damage. As with sulfasalazine, patients taking methotrexate must be monitored for white blood cell count during therapy. Other side effects include headache, fatigue, malaise, and inflammation of the mouth (stomatitis).Lung inflammation, one of the most unpredictable and potentially serious side effects of treatment with methotrexate, can occur at relatively low doses. Symptoms include shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, and fever. In addition to lung disease, methotrexate can cause an increased incidence of bronchitis and pneumonia.There is also concern that methotrexate might increase the risk of blood cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma. Although the evidence is contradictory, one study concluded that the spontaneous remission of lymphomas in rheumatoid arthritis patients after methotrexate was stopped was reason enough to further investigate the drugs role in development of these cancers.*26/306/5*

Posted by admin on May 1

As you begin to eat, pay attention to the food in your mouth. What does the physical presence of that particular food feel like in your mouth? What is the texture of the food? Is it hard? Soft? As you bite into it, what is its taste? What flavors are you experiencing? Think about the experience of chewing each particular food. Focus on the act of swallowing. What is the experience of the food going down your throat and into your body?In order to pay so much attention to the details of your eating experience, you must eat slowly. This may be a new experience for you. Most people eat very quickly. Studies show that many meals are consumed in as little as five minutes. Take your time and slow yourself down. This is very important.To convince yourself to eat more slowly you are going to have to convince yourself that eating is an important activity. When you say, “I don’t have time to eat slowly,” you are saying that other activities in your life are more important than eating. This may have been true in the past, but if you want to overcome binge eating, you must change. I realize that you have certain time constraints as well as responsibilities and obligations. I am not telling you to give all those up. I am simply saying that food and eating must have a higher priority in your life than they had previously.*71\358\8*



Posted by admin on Apr 29

Myths about acne may prevent people from seeking appropriate treatment. The most common myths about acne include:- Acne is due to diet. Recent studies have shown that acne is not related to diet, although some people experience an outbreak after eating chocolate. These people form a minority. The majority of people do not benefit from any dietary restriction.- Acne clears up in the early twenties. This rarely occurs and there is no logical reason why it should.- Acne will disappear as soon as you get married. There is no truth in the hypothesis that marriage (does this mean sex?) has any beneficial influence on acne.- Acne will disappear once women have children. This is not always true, although in some women acne does disappear during pregnancy due to hormonal changes, but may flare up after pregnancy.- Vitamin tablets will help acne. Although there was a vogue for vitamin therapy in the treatment of acne, recent scientific trials have shown that vitamins and zinc tablets are of no real benefit. On the contrary, vitamins which contain kelp may promote acne.- Steaming the face will open the pores and get rid of acne. There is no evidence that steaming the face will unblock pores or help clear up pimples. In fact, severe burns have resulted from doing so.- Acne masks and special cleansers will improve acne. Some acne masks contain drying agents, which may reduce the oiliness of the skin but do not remove pimples. Often they lead to considerable irritation. Neither are anti-bacterial soaps of any particular benefit. They remove the bacteria on the surface of the skin, which are not the organisms producing the acne. Anti-bacterial soaps are often too drying and irritating, making the skin more inflamed. It is best to use a mild soap or a fat-free cleanser such as Cetaphil lotion.- Sunlight and sunbathing will improve acne. This is probably the most dangerous myth. Although some people’s acne improves in sunlight, others find it gets far worse. People who have suffered with severe acne as teenagers and spent many hours in the sun are now developing multiple skin cancers. This is not a recommended preventative measure, and certainly skin cancer is not a reasonable substitute for acne.- The use of drying preparations on the skin will cause ageing and wrinkles. This is certainly not the case, as ageing and wrinkles are not related to dryness or lack of oil. Wrinkles and ageing are in fact due to sun damage which causes degeneration of deep skin fibres (collagen and elastin).- Drinking plenty of water will help clear acne. This is not beneficial and only encourages frequent visits to the lavatory.It is not easy to dispel these myths. Magazines and pseudo-medical experts with vested interests promote many of these tales to the poor teenager’s detriment.

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